The crusades made up the sequence of expeditions mounted in Europe with the intention of freeing the Holy Land from Islam, and imposing Christian rule. The crusading movement is striking testimony to the influence of the pope throughout Europe, esp. in the late 11c. For all the mercenary impulses which were attached to later crusades, the first came from a genuine enthusiasm for a holy war against the infidel. The first such military adventure was preached by Pope Urban II in 1095. The nominal purpose was to free the Holy Land from the Muslims. This was achieved when Jerusalem was taken in 1099. Jerusalem then became a kingdom with its first king, Baldwin (1100-18); several other crusader states were also created. There were other expeditions in the 12c, again aimed at the Muslims in the Holy Land and also those in Spain. The Second Crusade was preached in 1145. However, Jerusalem was retaken in 1187 by Saladin. This was followed by the Third Crusade, in which King Richard I played a significant part. The kingdom of Jerusalem lasted precariously until 1291, when Acre fell, despite the efforts of countless crusaders and nobles seeking war and glory. Crusades took place also in other areas, e.g. the Baltic. [< OldFr. croisade < Lat. crux = a cross]

Dictionary of Medieval Terms and Phrases. .

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  • Crusades — • Expeditions undertaken, in fulfilment of a solemn vow, to deliver the Holy Places from Mohammedan tyranny. Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Crusades     Crusades      …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • CRUSADES — CRUSADES, military expeditions of the European Christians in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries to conquer Ereẓ Israel from the Muslims or to repel their counterattacks. The explicit cause was the reports received from Jerusalem concerning the… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Crusades — This article is about the 11th, 12th and 13th century religious military campaigns. For other uses, see Crusade (disambiguation) and Crusader (disambiguation). The …   Wikipedia

  • Crusades — a series of military expeditions between the 11th and 14th centuries, in which armies from the Christian countries of Europe tried to get back the Holy Land (= what is now Israel, Palestine, Jordan and Egypt) from the Muslims. The soldiers who… …   Universalium

  • Crusades —    The crusading movement began when Pope Urban II (qq.v.) called the First Crusade (q.v.) at the Council of Clermont in 1095. The object was to regain Jerusalem (q.v.) from the forces of Islam (q.v.), and to aid the eastern church in the process …   Historical dictionary of Byzantium

  • Crusades — A period of time in the middle ages from the 11th to 13th centuries where a series of military actions were undertaken on behalf of the pope and religious beliefs. Knights would travel to the holy lands from the Muslims. These holy lands were… …   Medieval glossary

  • Crusades —    Started in 1095 AD, these were a series of holy wars launched by the Christian states against the Saracens. These wars began as an attempt to remove the Saracens from the Holy Land (Jerusalem), but was later extended to taking Spain from the… …   The writer's dictionary of science fiction, fantasy, horror and mythology

  • Crusades — Crusade Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Crusade, mot anglais signifiant croisade, peut faire référence à : Crusade, un album de John Mayall And The Bluesbreakers (#8 R U en 1967),… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Crusades — Cru|sades, The eight wars led by Christian European kings in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries to get control of Palestine from the ↑Saracens or Muslims …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • CRUSADES —    medieval religious wars in which CHRISTIANS sought to regain Jerusalem from its MUSLIM conquerors following its capture by the Turks in 1071 …   Concise dictionary of Religion

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